Variations in White Cell Morphology -- Granulocytes (Online Course)

(based on 1724 customer ratings)

Authors: Marjorie A. Spahn, MT (ASCP); Barbara Minderman, MT (ASCP)
Reviewer: Leah Coppolino, MPH, CLS(NCA), MT(ASCP)

This course covers all aspects of white blood cell morphology, including identifying changes in morphology in granulocytes. Addresses barr bodies, Dohle bodies, Auer rods, vacuoles, hypersegmented granulocytes, and hyposegmented granulocytes. Excellent as a refresher or for clinical laboratory science students.

See all available courses »

Continuing Education Credits


  • Explain the importance of identifying changes in granulocyte morphology.
  • Define, describe, and explain the relationship of Barr bodies to abnormal morphology.
  • Discuss nuclear hypersegmentation and hyposegmentation, with respect to: definition, appearance, composition, and significance.
  • Discuss nuclear hypersegmentation and hyposegmentation, with respect to: hypersegmented granulocytes and hyposegmented granulocytes.
  • Identify each of the following cytoplasmic variations: Dohle bodies, Auer rods, vacuoles, and abnormal granulation.

Customer Ratings

(based on 1724 customer ratings)

Course Outline

  • Introduction
      • Variations in Morphology
      • Importance of Recognition
      • Match the following:
  • Nuclear Variations
      • Hypersegmentation
      • Conditions Associated with Hypersegmented Neutrophils
      • Hypersegmented Neutrophils
      • Hypersegmented Neutrophils (cont.)
      • A Normally Segmented Neutrophil
      • Which of the following statements is true for hypersegmented neutrophils? (Choose ALL of the correct answers)
      • Hyposegmentation
      • Conditions Associated with Hyposegmented Neutrophils
      • Pelger-Huet Anomaly
      • Normal Band Forms vs. Pelger-Huet Bands
      • Bilobed Neutrophil
      • Pelger-Huet Cells
      • Single-Lobed Pelger-Huet Cells
      • Which of the following are seen in Pelger-Huet anomaly?
      • Barr Body
      • Which of the following best describes a Barr body?
  • Cytoplasmic Variations
      • Döhle Bodies
      • Döhle Bodies, continued
      • Toxic Granulation
      • Toxic Granulation and Vacuolation
      • Cytoplasmic Vacuolation
      • Neutrophil with Normal Granulation
      • Toxic granulation is seen most frequently in:
      • Auer Rods
      • Auer Rods, continued
      • Which of the following inclusions may be seen in the cytoplasm of myeloblasts?
      • Auer rods are significant when they are seen in the cytoplasm of blast cells because they are diagnostic for:
      • Chediak-Higashi Anomaly
      • Albinism and Chediak-Higashi Anomaly
      • Chediak-Higashi Anomaly vs. Toxic Granulation
      • Chediak-Higashi Anomaly Inclusions
      • Chediak-Higashi anomaly is characterized by which of the following?
      • May-Hegglin Anomaly
      • Alder Anomaly (Alder-Reilly Anomaly )
      • Alder Anomaly, continued
      • Alder anomaly inclusions may be found in which of the following white blood cell types?
      • Which of the following inclusions has a similar appearance on a Wright's stained smear to a Döhle body?
      • The inclusions that are frequently seen on the same peripheral blood smear with toxic granulation include: (Choose ALL that apply)
      • What type of inclusions are present in the cell that is indicated by the arrow?
      • The cell in this image is typical of other neutrophils on this peripheral blood smear from a patient with sepsis. Which morphologic term describes the...
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of instruction: Intermediate

Intended Audience: clinical laboratory science students, medical technologists, and medical laboratory technicians seeking review or continuing education. It is also appropriate for medical students, pathology residents, and pathologists.

Course Description: This course covers morphologic variations observed in granulocytes, including nuclear and cytoplasmic variations.

Authors: by Marjorie A. Spahn, MT (ASCP); Barbara Minderman, MT (ASCP), updated by EMHP, and adapted for the web by Paul Fekete, M.D. C.A.P AP/CP.
Reviewer: Leah Coppolino, MPH, CLS(NCA), MT(ASCP) is the Director of the Clinical Laboratory Science Program at St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She holds a Masters in Public Health from Thomas Jefferson University.

About the Course: This course is part of a series of courses adapted for the web by MediaLab, under license from Education Materials for Health Professionals, Inc. Dayton OH, 45420. Copyright EMHP. This course was reviewed and revised in 2012.

Just one user? Visit for individual subscriptions.





Barr Body neutrophil


Alder-Reilly lymphocyte