Tracking Antibiotic-Resistant Tuberculosis (Online Course)

(based on 327 customer ratings)

Author: Cynthia B. Schofield, MPH, MT
Reviewer: Catherine Dragoni, MT(ASCP)SM

In this course, the presentation of a brief history of tuberculosis (TB) and its developing resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, is followed by case histories from India, Italy, and the US-Mexican border. The pathogenesis of TB disease in humans is diagrammed and a review of diagnostic laboratory methods, susceptibility testing, and methods of control are explored.

See all available courses »

Continuing Education Credits

  • P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 2 hour(s)
  • Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Microbiology/Mycology/Parasitology): 2 hour(s)


  • Review the history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and developing antibiotic resistance.
  • Discuss the global case load of tuberculosis (TB), including India, Italy, and the United States (US)-Mexican border.
  • Describe two pediatric TB cases.
  • Diagram and explain MTB pathogenesis.
  • Discuss laboratory methods of MTB diagnosis and susceptibility testing.
  • Review methods of TB treatment and control.

Customer Ratings

(based on 327 customer ratings)

Course Outline

  • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
  • Background
      • History
      • Robert Koch made several significant discoveries with regard to the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus. Which statement is FALSE?
      • Early Treatment
      • TB Wonder Drugs
      • Transmission
      • For tuberculosis (TB) patients, the success of sanatorium treatment was based on a combination of several different factors. Which of the factors list...
      • Spread of Resistance: Escalation of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
      • In the 1980s, what major factor directly caused the escalation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)?
      • Spread of Resistance: Global Emergency
      • After the first appearance of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), which control measure was the MOST effective?
  • Global View
      • India
      • Development of Selective Resistance in India
      • Which of the following statements BEST explain India’s rising prevalence of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB)? (Choose all that apply...
      • Italy
      • Source of Infection in Italian School Epidemic
      • Which three (3) statements help to explain the difficulty in resolving the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic in the Italian school? (...
      • Case Study of Drug Resistance in Two Children: Patient 1
      • Case Study of Drug Resistance in Two Children: Patient 2
      • Case Study of Drug Resistance in Two Children: Treatment Summary for Both Cases
      • Comparison of Italian Pediatric Cases
      • Which of the following statements accurately describe the similarities present in both of the pediatric case studies presented? (Choose all that apply...
      • United States (US)-Mexican Border
      • United States (US)-Mexican Border, continued
      • What primary factors tend to increase the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) across the...
  • Pathogenesis
      • Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis (TB) Infection
      • All of the following help to explain the mechanism that causes (pathogenesis) tuberculosis (TB) infection, EXCEPT which statement?
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
      • Laboratory Diagnosis
      • Acid-fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear Microscopy
      • Culture
      • Identification (ID)
      • Match the method with the definition that best applies.
      • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST)
      • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST): Example of an Automated System
      • Match each description with the definition that applies.
      • Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Strains: Isoniazid (INH) Resistance
      • Molecular Detection of Mutidrug-Resistant (MDR) Strains: Rifampin (RIF) Resistance
  • Treatment and Control of Antibiotic-resistant TB
      • Treatment
      • Control and Prevention
      • Which of the following statements are considered essential to the treatment and control of MDR-TB? (Choose all that apply.)
  • Looking Ahead
      • Looking Ahead
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of instruction: Basic to intermediate 

Intended audience:  This course is intended for microbiology bench technicians and technologists, supervisors, and administrators. 

Author information: Cynthia B. Schofield, MPH, MT received her BS degree in Biology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan and her Masters of Public Health, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics at San Diego State University, San Diego, California. Cynthia is retired with 25 years of supervisory experience in the clinical microbiology laboratory and has written for numerous publications, including ASCP, Advance, and MLO.

Reviewer information: Catherine Dragoni, MT(ASCP)SM received her BS degree in Medical Technology from the State University of New York, Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse. She began her career as a bench microbiologist at Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine. Currently she is the Chief Technologist of Microbiology and Molecular Pathology at NorDx Laboratories, Scarborough, Maine.

Course description: In this course, the presentation of a brief history of tuberculosis (TB) and its developing resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, is followed by case histories from India, Italy, and the US-Mexican border. The pathogenesis of TB disease in humans is diagrammed and a review of diagnostic laboratory methods, susceptibility testing, and methods of control are explored.

Tracking Antibiotic-Resistant Tuberculosis Keywords

These are the most common topics and keywords covered in Tracking Antibiotic-Resistant Tuberculosis:

lived mumbai diagnostics diagnosis aunt sanatoria july anti-tb coughing hepa alveolar hplc benefited underestimate 23-month-old koch eradicating inoculated caseous exposure numbers inoculum non-sterile infiltrate esp#174 nuclei sensitivity polymerase safety indias ethambutol hinduja blood naoh hilar organisms naat toxic tdr-tb cellular interferon-gamma paramount cells morphology news amikacin advancing tuberculin agar esperanza baja amplification guidelines mucolytic acids methylene contains rifampin drug-resistant mdr-tb disease airway relaxed cepheid lymphatic declined mtbc reactivation out-of-control chromatography procedures in-tube non-infectious hospitalization horrendous nucleic oxygen germany badly sanatorium drug-containing biosafety proved conditions capreomycin smear-positive xxdr-tb presumed mycobacterial gastric co-infection prohibitive adverse aspirates superbug microbiology mycobacterium globally indian matched isoniazid extensively genotyping liquefy mexico funding semi-automated clinics vaccinated p-aminosalicylic igra vertebral staffing inoculating culture respiratory middlebrook scrofula inactivation mycobacteria 11-month-old bacterium streptomycin pediatric mammals droplet acid-fast ethionamide rpob organism sodium macrophages tijuana second-line debilitating fathers mantoux clinical officially bacillus deter monocytes concentrate endemic bactec#8482 genexpert#174 kindergarten xdr-tb -mexican cure-rate liquefaction specificity phagocytized xdr- york appears outbreak assays dosages aerosols scientists combinations exams reinfection lowenstein-jensen novel simplicity prescribed fluorescence immune contamination mdr- mgit polymorphism laboratory salvage suffer moxifloxacin hospital oadc cavitation rifabutin pyrazinamide oxford drug sneezing advocacy escalation multidrug-resistant assay trek hydroxide mycolic lymph kochs epidemiology glycerol lung diseases ciprofloxacin iran italian bacterial apical cattle meta-analysis radiometric pathogenesis symptoms concentration geneva enzymes inoculation infectious untreatable bactec first-line sensor ancient revolutionary infection specimens totaled methods helped discovery puentes x-ray beacons lungs journals aids naats fluorescence-quenching cipro first- antibiotic antimicrobial treatment dosage china kanamycin statistics mgit#8482 potato levofloxacin epidemiological sputum spoligotyping calmette-guerin pigs tubercle dramatic infection control infiltrates becton-dickinson italy state-of-the-art sterile colony bacille macrophage south allows granuloma brains rntcp linezolid management n-acetyl-l-cysteine culture-positive primed devastating bacteria anti-tuberculosis identification antibiotics perihilar diagnostic respirology udwadia health cycloserine rflp workers vaccine meningitis direct-observed xpert#174 vessels gene

2174 mtb acidfast fig7ASM Microbe Libe

AFB fluorescent stain, courtesy of the CDC.

TB susceptibility agar proportion test, courtesy of CDC.

Ziehl-Neelson stained MTB showing AFB w/cording morphology, courtesy of the CDC

MTB by Ziehl-Neelsen


Fluorescent auramine stain w/acridine orange counterstain