Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Markers (Online Course)

(based on 697 customer ratings)

Author: Kevin F. Foley, PhD, DABCC, MT, SC
Reviewer: John Contois, PhD, DABCC, FACB

You don’t need to be a clinical laboratory scientist to know that there is a connection between HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk. We are frequently confronted with these terms and the importance of reducing our “bad” cholesterol. Cholesterol screening is encouraged, but the traditional markers may fail to identify patients who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. However, more accurate methods for determining risk are emerging. This course will acquaint you with several of these emerging cardiovascular risk markers that you may in the near future see added in your laboratory’s test menu.

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Continuing Education Credits

  • P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 2 hour(s)
  • Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Clinical Chemistry/UA/Toxicology): 2 hour(s)


  • Define cardiovascular risk markers and discuss the role these markers have in patient management.
  • List at least six emerging cardiovascular risk markers in use today.
  • Describe ApoB/ApoA1 ratio testing and compare it to traditional LDL and HDL analysis.
  • Describe the biochemical and clinical aspects of Lp(a).
  • Describe hsCRP, compare it to traditional CRP measurements, and discuss its role in cardiovascular assessment.
  • Explain the origination and significance of oxidized LDL.
  • Explain the role of LpPLA2 in cardiovascular testing.
  • Describe how lipid particle size is used in clinical assessment of cardiovascular risk.

Customer Ratings

(based on 697 customer ratings)

Course Outline

  • Introduction
      • Introduction
      • Introduction, continued
  • Risk Markers
      • Risk Factors
      • Cardiovascular Risk Markers
      • Atherosclerosis
      • Atherosclerosis continued
      • Patient Studies to Validate Risk Markers
      • Framingham Score
      • Which of the following is NOT a cardiovascular risk factor?
      • Which of the following statements is true?
      • Which of the following is NOT a factor used in the calculation of the Framingham Risk Score?
  • Lipoproteins
      • Transport of Lipophilic Substances
      • Lipoprotein Particles
      • Apolipoproteins
      • Apolipoproteins, continued
      • What are apolipoproteins?
  • ApoB/ApoA1
      • Importance of Determining Size and Number of Lipoprotein Particles
      • Measuring Apolipoproteins
      • ApoB and ApoA1
      • ApoB/ApoA1: The Test
      • What can be said of a patient who has high ApoB and low ApoA1 concentrations?
  • C-Reactive Protein
      • High Sensitivity-C-Reactive Protein
      • The hs-CRP Test
      • Cautions with hs-CRP
      • Which of the following is FALSE concerning CRP or hs-CRP?
  • Lipoprotein (a)
      • Lipoprotein (a)
      • Lp(a) Testing
  • Oxidized LDL
      • Oxidized LDL
      • Oxidized LDL Physiology
      • Oxidized LDL Tests
      • Which of the following describes oxidized LDL?
  • LpPLA2
      • Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2)
      • LpPLA2 and Cardiovascular Risk
      • Which of the following statements are true regarding LpPLA2?
  • Lipoprotein Particle Size and Number
      • Size and Number
      • Assessing Lipoprotein Particle Number and Size
      • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
      • LDL Phenotype by Electrophoresis
      • Electrophoresis Testing
      • Measuring particle number instead of cholesterol content has which of the following features or limitations?
  • Homocysteine
      • Homocysteine: Past and Present.
  • Myeloperoxidase
      • Myeloperoxidase
  • Summary
      • Summary
      • Interpreting Risk Marker Results
      • A Caveat...
      • Which biomarkers of cardiac disease risk are inflammatory markers?
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of instruction: Intermediate

Intended Audience: Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, and other health care personnel who have an interest in this subject matter. This course is also appropriate for clinical laboratory science students and pathology residents.
Author Information: Kevin F. Foley, PhD, DABCC, MT, SC is the Northwest chemistry, toxicology, immunology and POC director for Kaiser Permanente. He also teaches pharmacology, clinical chemistry, immunology and medicinal chemistry at Oregon Health Sciences University. Dr. Foley earned his PhD in clinical pharmacology and toxicology at East Carolina School of Medicine in North Carolina. His research areas include cardiovascular risk and inflammation markers as well as the neuropharmacology of amphetamine-like compounds. He is a frequent contributor to several clinical laboratory publications and is active in the American Association of Clinical Chemistry.
Reviewer information: John Contois, PhD, DABCC, FACB is the Manager of Research and Development for Maine Standards Company. He holds a MS and PhD in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Connecticut and an MBA from the University of North Carolina and is certified as a Diplomate with the American Board of Clinical Chemistry and a Fellow with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. Dr. Contois has a patent pending on a method for measuring the number of atherogenic low density lipoprotein particles in blood.


risk marker conc


oxidized LDL