Diabetes: Diagnosis, Laboratory Testing, and the Current American Diabetes Association Guidelines (Online Course)

(based on 399 customer ratings)

Authors: Mary Ellen Koenn, MS, MT(ASCP), CLS(NCA)
Co-author and Reviewer: David J. Moffa, PhD, BCLD

Diabetes is a national and international healthcare issue due to its high incidence and healthcare costs. The diabetic patient is at risk for many serious complications and may experience a diminished quality of life. This course will primarily focus on recommendations made by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) that are related to the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. Three case studies are followed throughout the course as laboratory tests are chosen that will lead to a probable diagnosis based on the recommendations of the ADA. Recommended tests for monitoring diabetic patients are also discussed.

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Continuing Education Credits

  • P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 1.5 hour(s)
  • Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Clinical Chemistry/UA/Toxicology): 1.5 hour(s)


  • Define diabetes and differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
  • Discuss gestational diabetes and other causes of diabetes.
  • Explain the role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnosis and monitoring diabetes.
  • Discuss the signs and symptoms of diabetes.
  • List the common ways to prevent, manage, and treat diabetes.
  • Identify clinical and laboratory criteria that indicates increased risk for diabetes.
  • List the current assays used to monitor diabetic patients.
  • Explain the recommendations made by the American Diabetes Association in regards to diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes.

Customer Ratings

(based on 399 customer ratings)

Course Outline

  • Overview of Diabetes: Definition and Facts
      • Organizations and Agencies
      • Diabetes: Definition
      • Which of the following statements about insulin are TRUE? (Select all that apply.)
      • Diabetes: Facts
      • Diabetes: A Metabolic Disorder
      • True or false? There is an emerging global epidemic of diabetes that has been traced to rapid increases in overweight people, including obesity, and p...
  • Blood Glucose and Hormonal Control
      • Blood Glucose and Hormonal Control
      • Blood Glucose and Hormonal Control (continued)
      • Blood Glucose and Hormonal Control (continued)
      • _________________ is the metabolic process whereby glycogen is broken down or hydrolyzed in the liver into glucose which is released into the bloodstr...
      • Which statement s are TRUE about the roles of insulin and glucagon in the regulation of normal blood glucose? (Select all that apply.)
      • Which of the following hormones is mainly responsible for the entry of glucose into the cell for energy production?
  • Classification of Diabetes
      • The Four Clinical Classes of Diabetes
      • Which of the following statements are TRUE with regard to the clinical classes of diabetes? (Select all that apply.)
      • Type 1 Diabetes
      • Type 2 Diabetes
      • Type 2 Diabetes: Prediabetes
      • True or false? Class 2 diabetes was formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes and most often occurs in chi...
      • When is Diabetes Classified as Type 1 or Type 2?
      • Gestational Diabetes (GDM)
      • Diabetes Due to Other Causes
      • Which of the following statements correctly describe gestational diabetes (GDM)? (Select all that apply.)
  • Risk, Complications, and Management of Diabetes
      • Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes
      • Risk Factors and Complications of Diabetes
      • Treatment and Management of Diabetes
      • Treatment and Management of Diabetes (continued)
      • The initial early sign of diabetes is hyperglycemia. More significant hyperglycemia can cause which of the following?
      • True or false? Ketoacidosis is a serious complication for type 1 diabetics and results in the production of excess acetyl CoA which is converted to ke...
  • Screening for Diabetes and Updated ADA Guidelines
      • American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines: Criteria for Diabetes Diagnosis
      • ADA Testing Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes in Asymptomatic Adults
      • ADA Guidelines: Caegories of Increased Risk for Diabetes (Prediabetes)
      • ADA Targets for Monitoring Glycemic Control
      • Which test/result combinations meet the ADA criteria for diabetes diagnosis? (Select all that apply.)
      • True or false? A Hb A1C level of 6.0% would be considered an increased risk for prediabetes.
  • Laboratory Assays in Evaluating Diabetic Patients
      • Clinical Laboratory Testing
      • Blood Glucose Testing
      • Whole Blood Glucose Testing
      • Urine Glucose
      • One of the most common methods used to quantify blood glucose levels is the ________________ method.
      • Urinary Albumin and Testing for Microalbuminuria
      • Testing for Ketones
      • Insulin and C-Peptide
      • Insulin Antibodies
      • Which laboratory test is used to identify early renal impairment in diabetic patients?
      • Glycated Proteins and Hb A1C
      • Hb A1C versus Blood Glucose Measurement
      • Fructosamine
      • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
      • True or false? Since the concentration of A1C relates to an individuals average blood glucose over the life span of the red blood cell (120 days), the...
  • Estimated Average Glucose (eAG)
      • Estimated Average Glucose
      • The Relationship Between Hb A1C and Estimated Average Glucose (eAG)
      • The formula for conversion of Hb A1C to glucose in mg/dL is:Estimated average glucose (eAG) = (28.7 x A1C) – 46.7The HbA1C measured on a patient...
  • Case Studies in Diabetes
      • Case Studies
      • Case A
      • Case B
      • Case C
      • In reviewing the previously described case A, case B, and case C, which patients would be diagnosed with diabetes according to the criteria for diagno...
      • A 50-year-old male with a family history of diabetes visits his physician for routine physical. He reports that he feels his health is excellent. He e...
  • The Laboratory's Role in Diabetes
      • The Laboratory's Role in Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of instruction: Intermediate

Intended Audience: Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, and other health care personnel who have an interest in this subject matter. This course is also appropriate for clinical laboratory science students and pathology residents.
Author information: Mary Ellen Koenn, MS, MT(ASCP), CLS(NCA) is an associate professor at West Virginia University School of Medicine in the Medical Technology Program. During her career as a medical technologist and educator, she has been a laboratory supervisor and manager and has held several teaching positions. She is active in the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS), resulting in a nomination as ASCLS Member of the Year in 2006. She is also a member of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry. She is the author of numerous articles for laboratory publications and textbook chapters and is a frequent presenter at laboratory seminars and workshops. Ms. Koenn holds a Master of Science degree in Medical Technology.
David J. Moffa, PhD, BCLD, has over 30 years of experience in the healthcare industry as an executive manager, clinical laboratory director, and medical laboratory scientist. He is currently a technical consultant for Kentmere Healthcare, Wilmington, DE, and until his retirement, was the Regional Director for LabCorp, Inc. He holds a PhD in medical biochemistry from the School of Medicine, West Virginia University.


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