Virulent Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Virulent and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome|
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an uncommon, but very serious consumptive platelet disorder. Its cause is unknown, but there are several possible precipitating factors including infection, carcinoma, and pregnancy. More women than men are affected by TTP. If left untreated, the mortality rate is in excess of 90% due to multiorgan failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is also a platelet consumptive disorder. HUS is thought by some to be the same condition as TTP because both disorders have the same underlying pathology. However, HUS is more often associated with renal failure and TTP with neurological manifestations including visual impairment, weakness, headache, dizziness, disorientation. seizures, or coma. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fever is associated with both TTP and HUS. The patient's condition can deteriorate rapidly while these symptoms are becoming evident. HUS is usually seen in children; it is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children. Patients may have bloody diarrhea and symptoms resembling colitis. Diarrhea-related HUS is usually associated with ingestion of undercooked beef contaminated with Ecoli O157:H7; it is the Shiga-like toxin from this serotype that causes the illness. Some patients may have long term kidney dysfunction as a result ofthis virulent infection. For patients who have experienced renal failure, dialysis may be required.
Suppola JP. Kuikka A. Vaara M. Valtonen VV. Comparison of risk factors and outcome in patients with Enterococcus faecalis vs Enterococcus faecium bacteremia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 30(2):153-7, 1998. The purpose of our study was to determine retrospectively the risk factors for the acquisition of Enterococcus faecalis vs E. faecium bacteremia, as well as the clinical outcomes of these patients. 62 patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia were compared to 31 patients with E. faecium bacteremia. Haematologic malignancies, neutropenia, high-risk source and previous use of aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins and clindamycin were significantly associated with E. faecium bacteremia. Instead, urinary catheterization was found to be related to Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia. The mortality rates within 7 d and 30 d were 13% and 27%, respectively, in patients with E. faecalis bacteremia and 6% and 29%, respectively, in patients with E. faecium bacteremia. There was no difference in mortality between E. faecalis and E. faecium bacteremia, nor was there a difference in seriousness of disease at the time of bacteremia. In the subgroups of patients with monomicrobial or clinically significant E. faecalis vs E. faecium bacteremia, the mortality rates were similar to the results of all subjects. Our results do not support the theory that E. faecium would be a more virulent organism than E. faecalis.
Citron DM. Appelbaum PC.: How far should a clinical laboratory go in identifying anaerobic isolates, and who should pay? Clinical Infectious Diseases. 16 Suppl 4:S435-8, 1993 Identification of anaerobic bacteria in specimens from sites of infection due to mixed organisms can be time-consuming and expensive. Laboratories should limit anaerobic workups by testing only those specimens that have been properly collected and transported to the laboratory. Use of selective and differential media for initial processing can provide rapid and relevant information to the clinician. Anaerobes isolated from normally sterile sites and sites of serious infection should always be completely identified. Group-or genus-level identifications may suffice in other instances. The Bacteroides fragilis group of organisms should always be identified because of their virulence and resistance to many antimicrobial agents. Some of the other organisms that warrant identification include Clostridium septicum (associated with gastrointestinal malignancy); Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium innocuum, and Clostridium clostridioforme (which are resistant to antibiotics); Clostridium perfringens (a cause of myonecrosis and gas gangrene,potentially serious infection); anaerobic cocci (which may be resistant to metronidazole and clindamycin); and fusobacteria (which may be virulent and resistant to clindamycin and penicillin).
|Match the species of anaerobes and frequently associated conditions.||View Page|
|Which of the following HPV types are high-risk HPV types:||View Page|
|Arrange the yeast species listed in the drop-down box in order of increasing virulence, from the least to the most pathogenic.||View Page|
|This parasite measure 50 µm by 30 µm. Its common name is:||View Page|
|Agent Biosafety Level (BSL) Requirements and Laboratory Exposure Risk|
These agents are dangerous, highly virulent organisms that should NEVER be manipulated on an open bench! Laboratory infections can occur and the use of a class II, or higher, biological safety cabinets (BSC) is critical when aerosols are likely. The importance of following facility specific safety protocols and standard microbiology practices at ALL times cannot be understated. Agent Biosafety Level Laboratory Exposure Risk B. anthracis BSL-2 Low Y. pestis BSL-2 Medium F. tularensis BSL-2/3 High Brucella species BSL-2/3 High Burkholderia species BSL-2/3 High
|A class II, or higher, biological safety cabinet (BSC) must be used when manipulating potential bioterrorism agents or if aerosols are likely.||View Page|
Yersinia pestis is a dangerous, highly virulent organism that can cause laboratory-acquired infections. It should NOT be manipulated on an open bench.Catalase: Y. pestis is catalase positive. Catalase testing MUST be performed with extreme caution in a biosafety cabinet (BSC) due to the creation of aerosols. Oxidase: NegativeUrea: NegativeIndole: NegativeImportant note: Y. pestis is often incorrectly identified on automated identification systems. These systems often key out as Acinetobacter, Shigella, or an H2S negative Salmonella. If this organism is suspected, do NOT use an automated system for identification in order to prevent the creation of aerosols and misidentification.
Brucella is a dangerous, highly virulent organism and the aerosols are highly infectious. It is the MOST common cause of laboratory-associated bacterial infections. Laboratory acquired cases have occurred by aerosol generating procedures, direct skin contact with cultures, and by sniffing cultures. It should NOT be manipulated on an open bench.Catalase: Brucella is catalase positive. Catalase testing MUST be performed with extreme caution in a biosafety cabinet (BSC) due to the creation of aerosols. Oxidase: PositiveBeta-lactamase: PositiveUrease: PositiveXV factors: Not required for growth (satellite phenomenon with S. aureus is negative)Serological testing: Often used because so difficult to grow. An acute and convalescent phase specimen should be collected 21 days apart.
Burkholderia species is a dangerous and highly virulent organism that can cause laboratory-acquired infections. It should NOT be manipulated on an open bench.Catalase: Both organisms are catalase positive. Catalase testing MUST be performed with extreme caution in a biosafety cabinet (BSC) due to the creation of aerosols. Oxidase: B. mallei: Oxidase variable B. pseudomallei: Oxidase positiveIndole: Both organisms are indole negativeMotility: B. mallei: Non-motile B. pseudomallei: Motile
|Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Burkholderia pseudomallei?||View Page|