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Chemical Screening of Urine by Reagent Strip (Online Course)

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Author: Lillian Mundt, MHS, MT(ASCP), SH
Reviewer: Leah Coppolino, MPH, CLS(NCA), MT(ASCP)

This course discusses the chemical tests that are an integral part of a urinalysis. Proper specimen handling and technqiue are discussed for key tests, including pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood, nitrites, urobilinogen, and leukocyte esterase.

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Continuing Education Credits

  • P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 1.5 hour(s)
  • Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Clinical Chemistry/UA/Toxicology): 1.5 hour(s)


  • Define the optimal storage time and temperature for urinalysis samples.
  • Review the proper storage of and procedure for the use of urinalysis reagent strips.
  • Describe the chemical reactions, quality control measures, and interpretion of results for urinalysis reagent strip analytes including pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood, nitrites, urobilinogen, leukocyte esterase.
  • Explain the proper techniques used during urinalysis reagent strip testing; ensuring accuracy.
  • Identify conditions and/or substances that may interfere with urinalysis reagent strip testing.
  • Identify the additional testing protocols used to confirm urinalysis reagent strip testing results.
  • Summarize the analytical principles of measurement in urinalysis reagent strip instruments.

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Course Outline

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  • Introduction to Urine Chemical Reagent Strips
      • Chemical Urinalysis Reagent Strips
      • Urine Specimen Collection
      • Urine Specimen Processing and Transportation
      • Reagent Strip Procedure
      • Precautions in Urinalysis Chemical Reagent Strip Analysis
      • Which of the following statements are true regarding the storage and handling of urinalysis chemical reagent strips? (Choose ALL correct answers)
      • All the following statements about the urine specimen are true EXCEPT:
      • Which of the following statements are true for the reagent strip procedure? (Choose ALL correct answers)
      • Quality control procedures should be performed with each new lot of chemical reagent strips, and as often as required by the laboratory's procedure.
  • Urine pH Analysis
      • pH Analysis: The Urine Specimen
      • Basis of the Urine pH Test
      • Urine pH: Acidic and Alkaline
      • The indicator(s) used in the pH test region of the chemical reagent strips for urine is/are: (Choose ALL correct answers)
      • A urine specimen was collected at 6:00 a.m. and remained at room temperature until it was received in the laboratory at 3:30 p.m. How may the pH of th...
      • Match the following factors with the expected urine pH type:
  • Urine Protein Analysis
      • Protein Error of Indicators
      • Confirmatory Testing for Urine Protein
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Protein
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Protein (continued)
      • Follow-up Testing for Positive Urine Protein
      • The presence of increased levels of protein in the urine may be an early indicator of which of the following conditions?
      • Examples of conditions resulting in benign proteinuria include: (Choose ALL correct answers)
  • Urine Glucose Analysis
      • Urine Glucose Analysis
      • False Positive and Negative Urine Glucose Results
      • Test for Reducing Substances Other than Glucose
      • Clinical Significance of Glucose in the Urine
      • A copper reduction method (e.g. Clinitest® or Benedict's) is performed on pediatric specimens in order to check for the presence of:
      • Which of the following conditions produce glycosuria? (Choose ALL correct answers)
  • Urine Ketone Analysis
      • Ketones Overview
      • Testing for Ketones in the Urine
      • Ketone Bodies
      • False Positive and Negative Ketone Results
      • Clinical Significance of Positive Urine Ketones
      • The ketone component that is measured by the nitroprusside reaction is:
      • Which of the following can cause a false positive result for ketones? (Choose ALL correct answers)
      • Significantly increased levels of ketones are detected in the urine with which of the following conditions? (Choose ALL correct answers)
  • Urine Bilirubin Analysis
      • Overview of Bilirubin
      • Testing for Urine Bilirubin
      • False Positive and Negative Urine Bilirubin Results
      • Confirmatory Testing for Urine Bilirubin
      • Clinical Significance of Urine Bilirubin
      • Which of the following may cause a false positive bilirubin result on a urine chemical reagent strip?
      • When a patient has a bile duct obstruction, the bilirubin test portion of the reagent strip is:
  • Urine Blood Analysis
      • Introduction to Hematuria
      • Reagent Test Pad for Blood
      • False Positive and Negative Results
      • Clinical Significance of Blood in Urine
      • A urine sample is cloudy pink in appearance. The microscopic examination reveals the presence of intact red blood cells. The term used to describe the...
      • Which of the following substances can cause a false positive result for blood on the urine chemical reagent strip?
      • Match the following positive urine blood results with the possible conditions which cause them to occur.
  • Urine Nitrite Analysis
      • Urine Analysis for Nitrites
      • Nitrites and Bladder Infections
      • Nitrite Test Sensitivity
      • False Positive and Negative Results
      • Clinical Significance of Nitrites in Urine
      • Nitrates in urine are reduce to nitrites by:
      • The nitrite portion of the test strip can be used to: (Choose ALL correct answers)
  • Urine Urobilinogen Analysis
      • Introduction to Urobilinogen
      • Urobilinogen Analysis
      • False-Positive and False-Negative Urobilinogen Results
      • Clinical Significance of Urobilinogen in Urine
      • In hemolytic disease, the urine bilirubin test result is negative and the urine urobilinogen test result is:
  • Urine Leukocyte Esterase Analysis
      • Presence of Granulocytes in Urine
      • Leukocyte Esterase on the Urine Chemical Reagent Strip
      • False Positive and Negative Urine Leukocyte Esterase
      • Clinical Significance of Leukocyte Esterase in Urine
      • A positive leukocyte esterase test indicates the presence in a urine specimen of which of the following?
      • To screen for urinary tract infections, leukocyte esterase results should be evaluated along with the results from which of these other reagent strip ...
  • Urine Specific Gravity Analysis
      • Measuring Specific Gravity
      • Advantages and Limitations of the Chemical Reagent Strip Method for Specific Gravity
      • Clinical Significance of Specific Gravity
      • How does ion concentration in the urine relate to specific gravity?
  • Automation of Chemical Reagent Strip Analysis
      • Semi-Automated Instruments
      • Quality Control
      • Semi-automated and automated urine chemical reagent strip readers:
      • Urine chemical reagent strips readers can utilize any manufacturers dipsticks.
      • When an automated or semi-automated method is used to read urine chemical reagent strips, quality control testing must be performed at least how often...

Additional Information

Level of instruction: Basic
Intended audience: Clinical laboratory science students, and medical technologists and technicians seeking review, cross training, or continuing education opportunities. It is also appropriate for other medical personnel who perform urine dipstick testing at the point of care.  
Author information: Lillian Mundt, MHS, MT(ASCP)SH holds a full time appointment within the College of Health Professions, in the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences at Rosalind Franklin University, where she is responsible for various courses in the undergraduate and graduate programs. Her primary discipline is Hematology and Body Fluid Analysis. Additionally, Lillian is responsible for the development of on-line courses and continuing education activities for the department, as well as acting as the department's chair.
Reviewer information: Leah Coppolino, MPH, CLS(NCA), MT(ASCP) is the Director of the Clinical Laboratory Science Program at St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She holds a Masters in Public Health from Thomas Jefferson University.
About the Course: This course is part of a series of courses adapted for the web by MediaLab Inc. under license from Educational Materials for Health Professionals Inc. Dayton OH, 45420. Copyright EMHP.

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Correct storage

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