Translocation Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Translocation and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) in Cerebrospinal Fluid|
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or PNET, is a soft tissue tumor that arises from primitive neural crest tissue. It shares the same cytogenetic translocation as Ewings sarcoma; a tumor of the bone. When present in cerebrospinal fluid cytospins, PNET cells tend to occur as singlets or doublets rather than large tumor clumps.Notice how these two cells are "stuck" to each other. In a cytospin with this low number of cells, it would be unusual for two cells to be touching each other unless they were actually fused together- this is an important and distinctive feature of this condition.
|Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL)|
This cytospin is from a patient who presented in respiratory distress and was found to have a large mediastinal mass and large bilateral pleural effusions.The lymphoid cells in this image are large and immature in appearance. These lymphocytes were initially believed to be consistent with lymphoma cells but, after immunophenotyping, were found to be reactive T-cells instead of lymphoma cells.The three larger cells in the image look similar. The two larger cells on the left are just macrophages. The one larger cell on the right is actually the malignant cell (see arrow). The malignant cell has a larger nucleus with softer more open chromatoin and a slightly more promanent nucleoli. The cytoplasm is also more basophilic, and the vacuoles are atypical. They are not the typical round vacuoles seen in macrophages/histocytes; these vacuoles are more elongated.The diagnosis of ALCL was confirmed when the cytogenetics proved positive for the specific translocation, t(2;5), that defines this lymphoma.