The presence of significant amounts of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria (or glucosuria). The amount of glucose present in urine is dependent upon the blood glucose level, the rate of glomerular filtration, and the degree of tubular reabsorption of the sugar. Usually glucose will not be present in the urine until the blood level exceeds 160-189 mg/dL, which is the normal renal threshold for glucose.
The main reason for glycosuria is an elevated blood glucose level (hyperglycemia). Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of hyperglycemia. However, stress, obesity, brain injury, myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, and a lowered renal threshold due to kidney damage can all cause glycosuria.