Rh negative female with anti-D at delivery: A case study (Online Course)
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If you have completed the course, Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn, you will enjoy working through a case that provides real-world application of what you have learned.
This case study presents an opportunity to review perinatal testing programs and the crucial role of RhIg in preventing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to anti-D. The case also examines practical aspects of routine serologic testing involving neonates and women who have received RhIg during pregnancy.
You will be guided through laboratory findings that need to be interpreted and resolved; be presented with current best practices in perinatal testing programs; review the characteristics of RhIg and its use in pregnancy; review and investigate key issues associated with detection of anti-D in women who have received antenatal RhIg; and learn about crossmatch and LIS policies related to RhIg-derived passive anti-D.
Continuing Education Credits
- P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 2 hour(s)
- Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Blood Banking / Immunohematology): 2 hour(s)
- Discuss the history of RhIg, its sources, preparation, constituents, safety, types, mechanisms of action, criteria for the administration of RhIg antenatally and postnatally, dosage calculation, and causes of failures.
- Interpret serologic tests done on the mother, father, and fetus / newborn as part of perinatal testing programs, including antibody identification.
- Identify best practices for serologic and other tests used in perinatal testing programs.
- Describe the principles, uses, and limitations of the rosette test, Kleihauer-Betke test, and flow cytometry in Rh prevention programs.
- Discuss and resolve key issues associated with detection of anti-D in women who have received antenatal RhIg.
- Identify crossmatch and LIS policies and practices related to RhIg-derived passive anti-D.
(based on 1535 customer ratings)
Click on a link in the outline to view a sample page from this course.
- Case Scenario
- Initial Serologic Test Results
- Perinatal Testing Programs
- Perinatal Testing Programs
- Routine Serologic Tests - Mother
- Routine Serologic Tests - Father
- Routine Serologic Tests - Newborn Protocols
- Routine Serologic Tests - Newborn
- For infants born to Rh negative females, a test for weak D is optional when initial D typing shows the newborn to be Rh negative.
- A group A Rh positive mother is about to deliver her infant. Is it acceptable good practice not to test the newborn (ABO, Rh, DAT)?Answer Y (for yes) ...
- Interpreting Initial Serologic Tests
- Antibody Exclusion Protocol (General)
- Using the initial screen cell antigram below, which antibodies have not been eliminated? Include all antibodies even if they are unlikely to cause HDF...
- Antibody Exclusion Protocols (RhIg)
- Passive or Active Immunization?
- Antibody Titration
- RhIg-Derived Anti-D Reaction Strength
- Factors Affecting RhIg Reaction Strength
- How Long Can RhIg Be Detected?
- How Much Testing?
- Which of the following factors is most likely to cause a false negative antibody screen following RhIg injection?
- A pregnant female has been injected with RhIg antenatally and has a positive antibody screen at delivery. If the antibody has been confirmed as anti-D...
- An anti-D titer of 4 in an Rh negative female who has received antenatal RhIg indicates that the anti-D is passive not immune.
- A pregnant female who received RhIg at 28 weeks gestation has a positive antibody screen at delivery. If the antibody has been confirmed as anti-D alo...
- Review of Rh Immune Globulin
- Suppliers / Trade Names
- Mechanism of Action
- How many international units (IU) of IgG anti-D are in 300 µg vial of RhIg?
- RhIg prevents anti-D production mainly by clearing antibody-sensitized D-positive RBCs from maternal circulation.
- RhIg for IM use may cause a reaction if administered intravenously.
- Use in Pregnancy
- Related Uses
- RhIg and Rh Complexity
- RhIg & Variants of D
- RhIg Policies for Weak D
- International RhIg Policies
- Clinical Relevance of D Phenotypes
- RhIg Dosage
- RhIg 'Failures'
- RhIg prophylaxis is typically given antenatally to Rh negative pregnant females without knowing the Rh of the fetus.
- When given during pregnancy, RhIg may cross the placenta and cause a positive DAT in the newborn.
- Therapeutic abortion is an indication for administering RhIg to an Rh negative woman.
- Which D variant has a qualitative difference in the D antigen that allows individuals with the D variant to produce anti-D? Select all that apply.
- A 300 µg dose of RhIg can suppress immunization to _____ mL of D-positive whole blood.
- Follow-up Serologic Tests
- Mini-Panel Antibody Exclusion
- Using the guidelines in the antibody exclusion protocol, all unexcluded antibodies (anti-C, E, K, Fyb, Jka, M, s, Leb) have been excluded by the mini-...
- Post-delivery Testing
- Serologic Tests on Newborn
- The newborn's ABO group is invalid because no reverse (serum) group was set up with A1 and B cells.
- The newborn's Rh(D) type is invalid because the DAT is positive.
- The positive DAT on the newborn means that the infant probably has clinically significant hemolysis.
- Newborn's Clinical Status
- Is the mother a candidate for RhIg? (type Y for yes or N for no)
- Screening for Fetomaternal Hemorrhage
- Rosette Test
- Quantifying FMH
- Kleihauer-Betke Test
- Flow Cytometry
- Calculating RhIg Dosage
- Assessing FMH and RhIg Dosage
- Crossmatch Issues
- Crossmatch Implications of RhIg-associated Passive Anti-D
- Crossmatch Practices Related to RhIg - Introduction
- LIS Issues Related to RhIg
- Crossmatch Practices Related to RhIg - Examples
- Which of the following tests are suitable for quantifying the size of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH)? Select all that apply.
- Blood safety standards such as AABB Standards directly specify that an electronic crossmatch cannot be done when an Rh negative female has an anti-D c...
- A rosette test to screen for FMH is contraindicated if the newborn is weak-D.
- For those facilities that in the interest of safety use a special calculation for RhIg dosage, regardless if they round up or round down, they always ...
- The Kleihauer-Betke test is based on the principle that red cells containing fetal hemoglobin are more susceptible to acid elution than cells containi...
- Summary and Conclusions
- Case Summary
- Main Learning Goals
- Further Reading
- Literature and Online Resources
Level of instruction: Intermediate
Intended Audience: Clinical laboratory technologists, technicians, and pathologists. This course is also appropriate for clinical laboratory science students and pathology residents.
Author information: Pat Letendre, MEd is a laboratory technologist, educator, and consultant. Currently, she consults full-time in the areas of transfusion medicine, education, professional development, and use of the Internet in education. Ms. Letendre is the Webmaster for Canada's transfusion safety officers and the TraQ website coordinator. She holds a Masters of Education degree in adult education from the University
and a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Manitoba
Reviewer information: Erin Tretter, MT(ASCP), is currently the STAT Laboratory Supervisor at Penn Presbyterian Medical Center in Philadelphia, PA. She received her BS in Medical Technology from California University of Pennsylvania and has nearly 8 years of experience as a Generalist, including Blood Bank, Hematology and Chemistry. Erin is the Blood Bank Clinical Instructor for the Clinical Laboratory Science Program at St. Christopher’s and has 4 years experience teaching immunohematology concepts and laboratory procedures to Medical Technology students. She has also provided blood bank training for laboratory technologists and medical students. Erin is currently obtaining a Master’s in Business Administration from Florida Institute of Technology where she is a member of the Phi Kappa Phi Honor’s Society.
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