Ovalocyte Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Ovalocyte and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|Hematologic Findings For Various Types of Beta Thalassemia|
Beta Thalassemia MinimaBeta Thalassemia MinorBeta Thalassemia Intermedia Beta Thalassemia MajorDelta-Beta ThalassemiaAnemiaAbsentMild to absentModerateSevereMildRed blood cell (RBC) countNormalIncreasedDecreased to normalDecreasedDecreased to normalHemoglobin(Hb)NormalDecreased to normal (10 - 12 g/dL) Decreased (7 - 10 g/dL)Marked decrease (<7 g/dL)Decreased to normal (8 - 13 g/dL)Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)Slight to no decreaseMarked decreaseMarked decreaseMarked decreaseMay be slightly decreasedMean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)Slight to no decreaseMarked decrease Marked decreaseMarked decreaseMay be slightly decreasedRed blood cell distribution width (RDW)NormalNormal to slightly increasedIncreasedIncreasedNormalRBC morphologyNormalMarked hypochromia and microcytosis Codocytes (target cells) Possible basophilic stippling Nucleated RBCs are usually not presentMarked hypochromia and microcytosis Codocytes (target cells) Possible basophilic stippling Nucleated RBCs are usually not presentMarked hypochromia and microcytosis Codocytes (target cells) schistocytes ovalocytes basophilic stippling polychromasia nucleated RBCs Possible hypochromia and microcytosis Codocytes (target cells) Basophilic stippling Reticulocyte countNormalMay be slightly increasedSlightly increased (<5%)Mildly increased (5 - 10%)Mildly increasedHb electrophoresisNormal patternDecreased amount of Hb A Variable amounts of Hb A2 and Hb F Decreased amount of Hb A Variable amount of Hb A2 Hb F is usually increased Severly decreased amount of Hb A Variable amount of Hb A2 Usually an increased amount of Hb F Decreased amount of Hb A and Hb A2 Increased amount of Hb F (15 - 20%)If red blood cells are normochromic and normocytic, the RBC, Hb, and Hematocrit (HCT) test values follow in three-fold progression (i.e., RBC x 3 = Hb and Hb x 3 = HCT). This is sometimes referred to as "the rule of threes." This rule will usually not apply in cases of beta thalassemia, particularly beta thalassemia minor where the RBCs are not normochromic and are microcytic, and where there is a disproportionate number of RBCs for the amount of hemoglobin that is present.
|What best describes the cells seen in this illustration:||View Page|
|The red cells in this illustration exhibit which of the following abnormal erythrocyte shapes:||View Page|
|The abnormal RBCs seen in this smear, such as those shown by the arrow are typically seen in:||View Page|
|The abnormal RBC shape seen in this illustration is:||View Page|
Ovalocytes/elliptocytes are oval or elliptical red blood cells that range in shape from slightly egg-shaped to rod or pencil forms. They have normal central pallor with the hemoglobin concentrated at the ends of the elongated cells. The ends of the cells are blunt and not sharp like sickle cells.A rare ovalocyte/elliptocyte (less than 1%) may be found on almost any peripheral blood smear. However, when they comprise more than 25% of the red blood cells on the blood smear, hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) is probable. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic while having normal red blood cell life spans, although a mild anemia may occur. Resistance to malarial infection may be a beneficial attribute of HE.
|Poikilocytosis Review Table|
Cell TypeImageCellular DescriptionAssociated Diseases and ConditionsTeardrop cellRed blood cells (RBCs) are shaped like a teardrop with a projection extending from one end.Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM)SpherocyteRBCs smaller than normalNo central pallorRound rather than disc-shapedHereditary spherocytosisCertain hemolytic anemiasSevere burnsTarget cellRBCs with characteristic bull's-eye morphology due to hemoglobin distribution.Hemoglobinopathies (e.g., sickle cell disease)Certain thalassemiasIron deficiency anemiaSplenectomySevere liver diseaseSickle cellRBCs contain hemoglobin S.Thorn or crescent-shapedSickle cell anemiaStomatocyteRBCs with thin, elongated area of central pallor (slit-like, or coffee-bean-shaped on peripheral blood smears).Three-dimensionally, RBCs are cup-shaped.Hereditary stomatocytosisAlcohol-related diseaseLiver diseaseRh null phenotypeArtifactSchistocyte (fragmented red cells)RBC blood cell fragments or piecesVary widely in size and shapeSevere burnsHemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA)Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)Ovalocyte (elliptocyte)RBCs are elongated-oval, cigar, or pencil-shapedHereditary elliptocytosisMegaloblastic anemiaMyelophthisic anemiaCertain thalassemiasSevere iron deficiency Acanthocyte (Spur cell)RBCs demonstrating irregularly-spaced, spiny projections that vary in size and numberNo central pallor.AbetalipoproteinemiaSevere hepatic diseaseMyeloproliferative disordersMAHANeuroacanthocytosissyndromesEchinocyte (Burr cell)RBCs have short and evenly-spaced, rounded projections surrounding the cellCentral pallor presentUremiaHeart diseasePyruvate kinase deficiencyStomach cancersBleeding peptic ulcersBite cellRed cells that appear to have bites taken out of them (Image A)Supravital stain reveals the presence of Heinz bodies--precipitated denatured masses of hemoglobin (Image B) Disorders associated with Heinz body formation:Unstable hemoglobinsChemical poisoningG-6PDHemolytic anemia associated with severe alcoholic liver disease
|Match the following terms with their synonyms.||View Page|
Two slightly larger fragments can be seen in this slide. One is lower center, and the other is lower right. Two dacryocytes or teardrop cells are seen in the upper center. Several ovalocytes are also present in this field. Schistocytes are seen in the same conditions as keratocytes and have a short survival time in circulation. Schistocytes have somewhat more clinical significance than keratocytes.