Neutropenia Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Neutropenia and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|Central Nervous System (CNS) Toxoplasmosis|
This image represents a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin preparation from a patient who recently received a bone marrow transplant for recurrent central nervous system (CNS) Burkitt's lymphoma. The patient was admitted to the hospital two weeks after transplant due to rapidly altering mental status. When the CSF cell count demonstrated a high white blood count (WBC) count, the first concern was a possible CNS relapse of the Burkitt's lymphoma. However, the cytospin showed many neutrophils in spite of the patients peripheral blood neutropenia. No malignant cells were identified.On closer examination of the neutrophil clusters, ovoid inclusions were noted (see arrow) as well as free banana shaped organisms (see circled area). The ovoid inclusions in the neutrophils and the free forms have lavender cytoplasm with a centrally placed cluster of reddish granules.
|Introduction to Bone Marrow Aspirates and Biopsies|
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are standard tools used in the hematology laboratory to aid in the evaluation and diagnosis of peripheral blood abnormalities. Some of these abnormalities include: cytopenias (such as neutropenia), thrombocytopenia and anemias. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are also used by hematology/oncology specialists in the diagnosis of leukemias, dysplastic syndromes, and proliferative syndromes. A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy may also be part of the evaluation of fever of unknown origin (FUO), failure to thrive(FTT) in the pediatric setting, as well as some metabolic and genetic disorders.A bone marrow aspirate sample is obtained by inserting a needle into the bone marrow space and withdrawing 5- 10 milliliters (mL) of marrow in several different syringes. These samples are then transferred to evacuated blood collection tubes containing the anticoagulants required for the types of assays desired. A portion of this liquid marrow is smeared for staining and evaluation under light microscopy. It can be sent for various types of laboratory assessment including : immunophenotyping, cytogenetic evaluation, and molecular analysis.While bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are usually obtained by the hematologist or oncologist, they are evaluated and interpreted by a hematopathologist with the assistance of the laboratory technologists who prepare and stain the smears. In many laboratory settings the technologists also perform the bone marrow differentials.
Suppola JP. Kuikka A. Vaara M. Valtonen VV. Comparison of risk factors and outcome in patients with Enterococcus faecalis vs Enterococcus faecium bacteremia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 30(2):153-7, 1998. The purpose of our study was to determine retrospectively the risk factors for the acquisition of Enterococcus faecalis vs E. faecium bacteremia, as well as the clinical outcomes of these patients. 62 patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia were compared to 31 patients with E. faecium bacteremia. Haematologic malignancies, neutropenia, high-risk source and previous use of aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins and clindamycin were significantly associated with E. faecium bacteremia. Instead, urinary catheterization was found to be related to Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia. The mortality rates within 7 d and 30 d were 13% and 27%, respectively, in patients with E. faecalis bacteremia and 6% and 29%, respectively, in patients with E. faecium bacteremia. There was no difference in mortality between E. faecalis and E. faecium bacteremia, nor was there a difference in seriousness of disease at the time of bacteremia. In the subgroups of patients with monomicrobial or clinically significant E. faecalis vs E. faecium bacteremia, the mortality rates were similar to the results of all subjects. Our results do not support the theory that E. faecium would be a more virulent organism than E. faecalis.
Kornbluth AA. Danzig JB. Bernstein LH.: Clostridium septicum infection and associated malignancy. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Medicine. 68(1):30-7, 1989 We report 2 patients with myonecrosis due to Clostridium septicum and associated colon carcinoma and have reviewed the English language literature for all reported cases of atraumatic C. septicum infection. A total of 162 cases of C. septicum infection have been reported. Eighty-one percent of these patients had an associated malignancy. Thirty-four percent of all patients had associated colon carcinoma, while 40% had a hematologic malignancy. Thirty-seven percent of reported patients had an occult malignancy at the time of their infection with C. septicum. In many patients, the portal of entry was found in the large intestine. In a particularly lethal form (79% mortality) of C. septicum infection, known as "distant myonecrosis," infection metastatic from the initial site of infection causes severe myonecrosis, gangrene, and often death within hours of clinical detection. Overall, survival of patients with C. septicum infection is only 35%. Review of all cases of C. septicum infection suggests several conclusions. 1) Patients with malignancy, particularly colonic or hematologic, and patients with cyclic neutropenia who develop signs and symptoms of sepsis, especially with associated findings of abdominal pain or pain in an extremity, should be treated for possible clostridial infection. 2) C. septicum infection does not appear to be a result of a single specific defect in either humoral or cell-mediated immunity. Rather, it may occur in patients who are granulocytopenic and therefore prone to an enterocolitis. 3) Patients in whom an infection with C. septicum is found must undergo a vigorous search for malignancy.
|In which of the following conditions are Pappenheimer bodies and siderocytes seen on the peripheral smear?||View Page|
|Match the clinical findings with the associated type of leukemia:||View Page|