Myonecrosis Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Myonecrosis and links to relevant pages within the course.
Learn more about laboratory continuing education for medical technologists to earn CE credit for AMT, ASCP, NCA, and state license renewal and recertification. Or get information about laboratory safety and compliance courses that deliver cost-effective OSHA safety training and continuing education to your laboratory's employees.
Citron DM. Appelbaum PC.: How far should a clinical laboratory go in identifying anaerobic isolates, and who should pay? Clinical Infectious Diseases. 16 Suppl 4:S435-8, 1993 Identification of anaerobic bacteria in specimens from sites of infection due to mixed organisms can be time-consuming and expensive. Laboratories should limit anaerobic workups by testing only those specimens that have been properly collected and transported to the laboratory. Use of selective and differential media for initial processing can provide rapid and relevant information to the clinician. Anaerobes isolated from normally sterile sites and sites of serious infection should always be completely identified. Group-or genus-level identifications may suffice in other instances. The Bacteroides fragilis group of organisms should always be identified because of their virulence and resistance to many antimicrobial agents. Some of the other organisms that warrant identification include Clostridium septicum (associated with gastrointestinal malignancy); Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium innocuum, and Clostridium clostridioforme (which are resistant to antibiotics); Clostridium perfringens (a cause of myonecrosis and gas gangrene,potentially serious infection); anaerobic cocci (which may be resistant to metronidazole and clindamycin); and fusobacteria (which may be virulent and resistant to clindamycin and penicillin).
Kornbluth AA. Danzig JB. Bernstein LH.: Clostridium septicum infection and associated malignancy. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Medicine. 68(1):30-7, 1989 We report 2 patients with myonecrosis due to Clostridium septicum and associated colon carcinoma and have reviewed the English language literature for all reported cases of atraumatic C. septicum infection. A total of 162 cases of C. septicum infection have been reported. Eighty-one percent of these patients had an associated malignancy. Thirty-four percent of all patients had associated colon carcinoma, while 40% had a hematologic malignancy. Thirty-seven percent of reported patients had an occult malignancy at the time of their infection with C. septicum. In many patients, the portal of entry was found in the large intestine. In a particularly lethal form (79% mortality) of C. septicum infection, known as "distant myonecrosis," infection metastatic from the initial site of infection causes severe myonecrosis, gangrene, and often death within hours of clinical detection. Overall, survival of patients with C. septicum infection is only 35%. Review of all cases of C. septicum infection suggests several conclusions. 1) Patients with malignancy, particularly colonic or hematologic, and patients with cyclic neutropenia who develop signs and symptoms of sepsis, especially with associated findings of abdominal pain or pain in an extremity, should be treated for possible clostridial infection. 2) C. septicum infection does not appear to be a result of a single specific defect in either humoral or cell-mediated immunity. Rather, it may occur in patients who are granulocytopenic and therefore prone to an enterocolitis. 3) Patients in whom an infection with C. septicum is found must undergo a vigorous search for malignancy.
|Match the species of anaerobes and frequently associated conditions.||View Page|
|Each of the following statements is true concerning Clostridium septicum infections EXCEPT:||View Page|
Clostridium are gram-positive or gram-variable, spore-forming, catalase-negative anaerobic bacilli. More than 100 species are currently recognized, though relatively few are encountered in properly collected clinical specimens from humans. There are three types of infection associated with Clostridium species: Non-invasive: Toxin-mediated Invasive: Progressive infection with tissue destruction Purulent disease: Closed space (e.g., in the peritoneal cavity) mixed infection with multiple organisms.Clostridium are well known as the agents of these classic toxin-mediated diseases : DISEASE TOXIN INVOLVED CAUSATIVE ORGANISM Tetanus or "lock jaw" Tetanospasmin Clostridium tetani Myonecrosis/Gas gangrene Exotoxins Clostridium perfringens Botulism (severe food poisoning) Botulin Clostridium botulinum