Moraxella Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Moraxella and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|A 25-year-old female presented in the emergency room with an acute urethral discharge of two days duration. The image to the right shows the Gram stained smear that was obtained. Many polymorphonuclear leukocytes and intracellular and extracellular gram-negative diplococci were observed. Based on the clinical history and the Gram stain observation, a diagnosis of gonorrhea can be made.||View Page|
|The Superoxol Test|
Superoxol is an additional spot test that may be helpful in the presumptive identification of N. gonorrhoeae. Superoxol is 30% hydrogen peroxide, in contrast to the 3% solution that is used in the catalase test. Other Neisseria species and Moraxella catarrhalis are either negative for this test or give a weak, delayed reaction.
|Commonly Misidentified Agents|
Agent of Bioterrorism Common Misidentification Brucella species Acinetobacter species Haemophilus species Micrococcus species Moraxella species Burkholderia pseudomallei Burkholderia cepacia Chromobacterium violaceum Pseudomonas species Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Francisella tularensis Pasturella multocida Yersinia pestis Acinetobacter lwoffi Shigella boydii Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
|Special Considerations for Genital Smears|
Gram-negative cocci that occur in pairs with their adjacent sides flattened, giving them a "coffee bean" appearance, are typical of the genus Neisseria. The presence of intracellular gram-negative diplococci on a smear made from a purulent urethral discharge from a male can be confirmatory of the diagnosis of gonorrhea. In this case, cultures may not even be needed unless susceptibilities are required. However, if the genital specimen is from a female (cervical specimen), the presence of gram-negative diplococci is not specific enough to confirm the diagnosis, and a culture or other confirmatory testing must be performed. Organisms such as Acinetobacter sp. and Moraxella sp. may mimic the appearance of N. gonorrhoeae and can lead to false-positive results.Direct smears read specifically for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhea should include a direct reference to gram-negative intracellular diplococci.