|Type 1 Diabetes|
Type 1 diabetes is caused by an absolute deficiency of insulin from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells or degeneration of these cells. The infiltration of mononuclear cells can be precipitated by environmental factors such as viruses, chemicals, and cow's milk or caused by unknown or idiopathic reactions. Ordinarily the individual has an inherited susceptibility to this autoimmune reaction and diabetes develops suddenly. Most often this onset occurs in childhood or young adult years. Type 1 diabetes encompasses about 10% of diabetes cases.Because of the beta-cell destruction, type 1 diabetic patients require insulin to prevent ketosis and reduce complications of this disease.This class was formerly Type I Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and referred to as juvenile-onset diabetes. The ADA has abolished using these designations but are noted in this review to correlate previously learned information with new recommendations.
|Type 2 Diabetes Continued|
Often with change in environmental factors (diet changes, weight loss, and exercise), a type 2 diabetic can regain acceptable glycemic control. If not, oral hypoglycemic medication is required. An absolute insulin deficiency may develop late in the disease and insulin would then be required.Type 2 diabetes accounts for the majority of those with diabetes, probably 80-90%. Ordinarily insulin resistance and deficiency develop in adult years. Due to poor diet and decreased physical activity, many young adults and school-age children are currently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in US.Type 2 diabetes was formerly Type II Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) and referred to as adult-onset diabetes. Again the ADA recommends discontinued use of these designations.
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