Lyse Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Lyse and links to relevant pages within the course.
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There are several diluents that may be used for CSF counts. Normal saline should be used to make dilutions for total cell counts. Diluting fluids for WBC counts include:crystal violet/acetic acidgentian violet/acetic acidtoluidine blue 0 and saponinThese fluids stain the white cells and lyse the red cells. The red cell count can be obtained by subtracting the white cell count from the total count.
Low power (10x) may be used for the total count while the high power objective (40x) is suggested for the white cell count, especially if the white cells are to be differentiated into segs, lymphs and monocytes.
Routine electrophoresis is a generic term for the traditional clinical laboratory electrophoresis performed on a rectangle-shaped slab gel. Routine electrophoresis is mostly used for separation of proteins and has some use in separating nucleic acids. Generally several patient specimens and control(s) can be placed on one gel and solutes separated in one run. This type of electrophoresis is sometimes called zone electrophoresis.A serum sample with normal plasma proteins yields five zones or bands of separated proteins: albumin, alpha-1-globulins, alpha-2-globulins, beta-globulins, and gamma-globulins. Proteins in CSF and urine proteins are also separated with routine electrophoresis. Using whole blood treated with a reagent to lyse red blood cells, variant and glycosylated hemoglobins can be detected. With different visualization methods, isoenzymes and lipoproteins in a serum sample can be identified.A manual agarose gel electrophoresis of eight serum samples is pictured below. After electrophoresis, the gel was stained with Ponceau S.
|Which of the following media contains the X and V factors necessary for the growth of Haemophilus influenzae:||View Page|
A third class of lymphocytes are called null cells. Null cells are not dependent on the thymus and they can attack certain types of specific cells without prior sensitization. This category includes killer (K) cells, which aid in the destruction of antibody-coated targets, and natural killer (NK) cells, which can lyse targeted cells.
|At room temperature, casts and red cells begin to lyse after:||View Page|
|Specimen Collection and Storage|
Examination of a fresh urine specimen provides the best results. Bacteria will metabolize glucose and pH changes may occur, affecting these results that are reported as part of the macroscopic urine testing. If the specimen is dilute (specific gravity <1.010), and/or the pH is >7.0, casts, white blood cells and red blood cells may lyse. If an unpreserved specimen (i.e., specimen container does not contain a preservative) cannot be tested within two hours of collection, it should be refrigerated at 2°-8° C. Although the most commonly received urine specimen is the random urine collection, the specimen of choice for urinalysis is the first morning urine. The first morning urine is more concentrated and allows for the detection of substances, which may not be present in a more dilute random sample. Once the physical and chemical characteristics of the urine have been determined, the microscopic exam is performed on the sediment.
Urine sediment may also contain white blood cells (WBCs). Most of the WBCs in urine are segmented neutrophils. Since it is possible that lymphocytes, monocytes, and/or eosinophils may be present, the cells in urine can be stained if it is necessary to differentiate them. The segmented neutrophil indicated by the blue arrow shows a distinct nucleus. When viewing urinary sediment under the microscope, the fine focus adjustment must be used to identify white blood cells. White blood cells swell in dilute alkaline urine and the cytoplasmic granules exhibit brownian movement resulting in "glitter cells." These cells lyse rapidly. "Glitter cells" are most easily seen when viewed under phase-contrast microscopy.