Genotypically Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Genotypically and links to relevant pages within the course.
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Those who type as group O must have two O genes present (since both the A and B genes would have produced recognizable antigens, neither of which is present on group O cells). Therefore, in the case of an AB individual or an O individual, we can tell exactly which genes are present, or a genotype. Group A or group B typing reveals only one gene product and thus only a phenotype can be determined. Persons of phenotype A can be genotype AA or AO , while those of phenotype B can be genotypically BB or BO. Family studies may be done to determine the genotype of an A or B individual. For example, if the mating of one A and one O parent produced a group O child, the second gene present in the A parent must have been O since the child has inherited one O gene from each parent.
A subgroup antigens are inherited, as are other ABO antigens with A1 being dominant over A2. Individuals who are phenotypically A1 may be genotypically A1O, A1A1, or A1A2. A phenotypically A2 individual may be genotypically A2A3. These alleles are passed to offspring in the same manner as other ABO antigens. Weak variant forms of the B antigen (B3, Bx, and Bel) also exist, but are very rare.