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Fructose Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.

These are the MediaLab courses that cover Fructose and links to relevant pages within the course.

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Chemical Screening of Urine by Reagent Strip
Urine Glucose Analysis

The analysis for glucose on a chemical reagent strip is a double-sequential enzyme reaction, utilizing the glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method. In the first reaction, glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then, the peroxidase catalyzes the oxidation of a chromogen by the hydrogen peroxide to form a colored product. The chemical reagent strip glucose pad is then analyzed and recorded at the set interval stated by the manufacturer.This method does not react with lactose, fructose or galactose. Study the dipstick color chart in your laboratory to become familiar with the range of color changes. NOTE: The urine specimen should be analyzed while at room temperature for these enzyme reactions to occur properly.

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Chemical Screening of Urine by Reagent Strip (retired March 2012)
Glucose Test

The test for glucose is a double sequential enzyme reaction, utilizing the glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method. In the first reaction, glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then, the peroxidase catalyzes the oxidation of a chromogen by the hydrogen peroxide to form a colored product. This method does not react with lactose, fructose or galactose. Study the dipstick color chart to become familiar with the range of color changes. The urine specimen should be at room temperature for these enzyme reactions to occur properly.

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Confirmatory and Secondary Urinalysis Screening Tests
Reducing Sugars

Although glucose is the sugar most commonly tested for in urine, normal human urine can contain small amounts of galactose, lactose, fructose, xylose, and other pentoses. Galactosuria, an abnormal amount of galactose in the urine, occurs in infants with a congenital metabolic defect. Lactose may be found in the urine of nursing women and during late pregnancy. All of these sugars, including glucose, are reducing substances.

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Hematology / Hemostasis Question Bank - Review Mode (no CE)
Which of the following is not a routine component of semen analysis:View Page

Microbiology / Serology Question Bank - Review Mode (no CE)
Which of the following is used as the indicator in the rapid carbohydrate utilization tests:View Page

Semen Analysis
Composition of Semen

Semen is a substance produced by the male reproductive organs. It is composed of spermatozoa in a semi-viscous fluid. Structures within the male reproductive tract that are involved in the production of semen include: Testes and epididymisProstateSeminal vesiclesBulbourethral glandSemen is produced as a combination of secretions from the different regions of the male reproductive tract. Each fraction differs in chemical composition and function. The combination of these fractions during ejaculation results in the optimal environment for transporting sperm to the endocervical mucus in the female. Spermatozoa are produced in the testes. They mature in the epididymis. The testes also produce testosterone and inhibin.Fluid from the seminal vesicles accounts for approximately 70% of semen volume. The seminal vesicles are the source of fructose in semen. Fructose is used by the spermatozoa as an energy source.The prostate gland supplies about 20% of the volume of semen. Its fluids include acid phosphatase and proteolytic enzymes that lead to coagulation and subsequent liquefaction of semen. The prostate also contains most of the IgA found in semen.The bulbourethral gland produces mucoproteins that make up about 5% of the volume of semen.

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Fructose

Fructose makes up 99% of the reducing sugar present in semen. This sugar is produced in the seminal vesicles and its absence may indicate an obstruction proximal to these glands. Although a fructose test is NOT part of a routine semen analysis, the clinician may want to measure this in cases of azoospermia. In azoospermia secondary to obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts or absence of the vas deferens, fructose is usually absent. When azoospermia is caused by failure of the testes to produce sperm, fructose is present. Measuring fructose levels can thus help the clinician determine the cause of azoospermia, although measurement of pH is often more useful in this regard. The procedure for determining the amount of fructose in semen involves heating semen in a strong acid in the presence of resorcinol. Fructose gives a red color to this solution when present.

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