Antigen-antibody Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Antigen-antibody and links to relevant pages within the course.
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Rule-out (also referred to as exclusion or cross-out) is a process by which antibodies are identified as being unlikely in a given sample because of the absence of an expected antigen-antibody reaction. In other words, the absence of a reaction is noted with a cell that is positive for the corresponding antigen. Rule-out, while very useful, can lead to error. Ruling out an antibody should be combined with other supporting data to increase confidence in the solution; the more data collected, the higher the probability that the final solution is correct.Non-reactive cells are selected for rule-out. To be classified as non-reactive, a cell must NOT have reacted in any phase of testing in a given panel or screen. In the case of cold antibodies: if reactions are only occurring at immediate spin and are negative in the AHG phase, then that panel cell can be used as a rule out cell for IgG reactive antibodies but not for antibodies that react at immediate spin (IgM).If there is no reaction with a panel cell then it is possible that antibodies to the antigens on that cell are not present in the sample being tested.
|Fluorescent ANA Testing|
The most common method of ANA testing is indirect fluorescent assay (IFA) utilizing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as the marker on the secondary antibody.The fluorescent ANA test uses the indirect fluorescent antibody technique first described by Weller and Coons in 1954. Patient serum samples are incubated with antigen substrate to allow specific binding of autoantibodies to cell nuclei. If ANAs are present, a stable antigen-antibody complex is formed.After washing to remove non-specifically bound antibodies, the substrate is incubated with an anti-human antibody conjugated to fluorescein. When results are positive, a stable three-part complex forms, consisting of fluorescent antibody bound to human antinuclear antibody that is bound to nuclear antigen. This complex can be visualized with the aid of a fluorescent microscope. In positive samples, the cell nuclei will show a bright apple-green fluorescence with a staining pattern characteristic of the particular nuclear antigen distribution within the cells. If the sample is negative for ANA, the nucleus will show no clearly discernible pattern of nuclear fluorescence. The cytoplasm may demonstrate weak staining while the non-chromosome region of mitotic cells demonstrates brighter staining.The photo to the right demonstrates the 4 basic ANA patterns (clockwise from top left): Homogeneous, Speckled, Centromere, and Nucleolar. (Additional photos of these patterns will be seen in subsequent sections.)
A similar procedure that is also widely used is called Colorzyme®.(Ref7) This system uses horseradish peroxidase rather than FITC as the marker on the secondary antibody. This technique offers the same advantages as the IFA procedure but also has the added benefits of being more photo-stable and not requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Colorzyme® ANA Test utilizes the indirect enzyme antibody technique. Patient serum samples are incubated with antigen substrate to allow specific binding of autoantibodies to cell nuclei. If ANA's are present, a stable antigen-antibody complex is formed. After washing to remove non-specifically bound antibodies, the substrate is incubated with an anti-human antibody reagent conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. When results are positive, there is the formation of a stable three-part complex consisting of enzyme antibody bound to human antinuclear antibody that is bound to nuclear antigen. This complex can be visualized by incubating the slide in an enzyme specific substrate. The reaction between the enzyme labeled antibody and enzyme specific substrate results in a color reaction on the slide visible by standard light microscopy. In positive samples, the cell nuclei will show a bright bluish purple staining with a pattern characteristic of the particular nuclear antigen distribution within the cells. If the sample is negative for ANA, the nucleus will show no clearly discernible pattern of nuclear staining. The cytoplasm may demonstrate weak staining while the non-chromosome region of the mitotic cells may demonstrate a darker staining. The photo to the right demonstrates the 4 basic ANA patterns (clockwise from top left): Homogeneous, Speckled, Centromere, and Nucleolar. (Additional photos of these patterns will be seen in subsequent sections.)
|In HDN which of the following antigen-antibody reactions is occurring:||View Page|
|Which of the following blood group antigen-antibody reactions is enhanced by using enzymes:||View Page|
|Avidity is best described by which of the following statements:||View Page|
|Nephelometry involves the measurement:||View Page|
|This question refers to results of the classical complement fixation test; match the result on the left with the presence or absence of hemolysis on the right.||View Page|
Sample preparationSamples for flow cytometric analysis are prepared based on the following procedural steps. Prepare the sample according to cell type. Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB): Prepare a blood smear, stain with Wright's stain, and scan under the microscope to identify basic cell distribution and morphology. BM can contain spicules; these samples need to be filtered. Tissue: Mince and filter tissues in a sterile cell culture media to release cellular components from the solid tissue form. Fluid: Filter fluid, prepare a cytospin, and scan under a microscope to identify cellular components. Obtain a white blood cell (WBC) count. Unless red blood cells are the population of interest, they should be lysed with a mild agent that will preserve the integrity of the cells targeted for analysis. If the red blood cells are not lysed, they lead to false analytic results. Adjust the WBC count by concentrating the WBCs to optimize for ‘staining' with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). Incubate the prepared cell concentration with assorted monoclonal antibody concentrations to allow antigen-antibody complexes to form. Lyse red blood cells (RBCs) with ammonium chloride or equivalent that will preserve cellular viability and integrity. The purpose is to eliminate RBCs while maintaining WBC integrity. If RBCs remain in the sample, they will interfere with the cell scatter plot and skew the results. Centrifuge to precipitate cells. Pour off supernatant. Wash in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or equivalent to eliminate cellular debris and unbound MoAbs, centrifuge, and decant. Resuspend cells in PBS. Analyze cells using flow cytometer.
|At what temperature range is the ABO antigen-antibody reaction best observed?||View Page|
|VDRL is an example of which of the following types of tests:||View Page|
|Categories of Transfusion Reactions|
Adverse complications of transfusions can be classified into several categories: Immune-mediated transfusion reactions are those that trigger a response from the patient's immune system. Many transfusion reactions are mediated by the recipient's immune system. These reactions occur as a result of antigen-antibody interactions. Antibodies involved include those with specificity towards antigens on red cells, white cells, or platelets. In general, the immune responses occur in three stages: the immune system detects foreign material (antigen) the immune system processes the antigen the immune system mounts a response to remove the antigen from the body Non-immune mediated hemolytic transfusion reactions are caused by the physical or chemical destruction of transfused RBCs, bacterial contamination, circulatory overload, or citrate toxicity. Acute reactions are those that occur during or within 24 hours after the transfusion. There is usually a rapid onset of symptoms and these reactions may be fatal. Delayed reactions occur weeks or months after the transfusion of blood or blood components.
Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTR) are caused when red cells are transfused to a patient with a pre-existing antibody that destroys the transfused incompatible red cells through intravascular or extravascular hemolysis. Life threatening acute hemolytic reactions most commonly occur from the transfusion of ABO incompatible blood. Naturally occurring ABO antibodies bind complement on the red cell surface and have efficient lytic properties which cause intravascular hemolysis. Extravascular hemolysis is characterized by antigen-antibody complexes which do not activate complement. AHTRs feature rapid destruction immediately after transfusion. Rapid hemolysis of as little as 10 mL of incompatible red cells can produce symptoms of an AHTR. Signs and symptoms can occur within minutes after starting the transfusion. Fever is the most initial symptom followed by the chills. These reactions are mostly associated with the transfusion of ABO-incompatible red cells. Causes include clerical errors, such as mislabeled patient samples and mislabeled blood products. Although acute hemolytic reactions are rare with an incidence of 1 to 9 in 100,000 transfusions, they are the most dangerous and are severely life threatening.