Anti-cw Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Anti-cw and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|Naturally Occurring Antibodies|
Antibodies are immunoglobulin proteins secreted by B-lymphocytes after stimulation by a specific antigen. The antibody formed binds to the specific antigen in order to mark the antigen for destruction.The type of antigenic exposure occurring in the body determines if the antibody is a naturally occurring or immune antibody.Naturally occurring antibodies can be formed after exposure to environmental agents that are similar to red cell antigens, such as bacteria, dust or pollen. Sensitization through previous transfusions, pregnancy or injections is not necessary. These antibodies are usually IgM and react best at room temperature or lower. Most of these antibodies are not clinically significant with the exception of ABO antibodies. Examples of naturally occurring antibodies include anti-A, anti-B, anti-Cw, anti-M, and antibodies in the Lewis and P system.
|Antibodies to Low- and High-Incidence Antigens|
Low-incidence antigens are antigens that occur in less than 1% of the population.Antibodies to low-incidence antigens Low-incidence antigens are not usually found on screen cell and antibody panels. Antibodies are hard to test for, but it is usually not difficult to find compatible blood. Suspect this antibody if an AHG crossmatch is incompatible and other causes have been ruled out, such as a positive donor DAT or ABO incompatibility. Examples of low-incidence antigens include: Cw, V, Kpa, Jsa. When going through the process of Ruling Out, antibodies like anti-V, anti-Cw, anti-Lua, anti-Kpa, and anti-Jsa usually fall into the "unable to rule out" category. High-incidence antigens are antigens that occur in greater than 99% of the population. Antibodies to high-incidence antigens Antibodies are rare and may be difficult to identify due to lack of negative panel cells for other high-incidence antigens (difficult to rule out). Reactions with screen and panel cells will all be positive (same strength and same phase). Auto control will be negative. Difficult to find antigen-negative compatible blood. Examples of antibodies to high-incidence antigens are: anti-k, anti-Kpb, anti-Jsb, and anti-Lub. If an antibody to either a high- or low-incidence antigen is present, it may be difficult to identify and may require further testing in a reference blood bank.
|Examples of Antibodies to Low-Incidence Antigens|
Antibodies to low-incidence antigens will be difficult to test for since most screen and panel cells do not have these antigens on the testing cells. Further testing may be needed at a reference laboratory where a larger selection of antibody panels are available to locate cells positive for these antigens.Suspect an antibody to a low-incidence antigen if: AHG crossmatch is incompatible and Other causes have been ruled out (positive donor DAT, ABO incompatibility) Examples of antibodies to low-incidence antigens are: anti-V, anti-Cw, anti-Kpa, anti-Jsa, and anti-Lua.