Agglutinin Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc.
These are the MediaLab courses that cover Agglutinin and links to relevant pages within the course.
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|Initial Steps for Identifying an Antibody|
The antibody screen can provide sufficient data to make initial hypotheses regarding the likely antibody specificities and may be useful to presumptively rule-out some antibody specificities. When analyzing the antibody screen data, the strength/characteristics of reactions (for example, mixed-field or weak versus strong), the phase of testing (for example, room temperature versus AHG), and the pattern of reactivity (which cells react and which do not) are all important factors that will provide clues about the possible identification of the antibody(ies). Many antibodies exhibit dosage, that is, they react more strongly with homozygous cells than with heterozygous cells. If a tube method is used, reactions are usually read at immediate spin and AHG phase. If a gel method is used, reaction readings are done only at AHG phase. Reactions occurring only at immediate spin phase could indicate a possible IgM antibody, cold agglutinin, or rouleaux. Reactions occurring in the AHG phase could indicate a possible IgG antibody. Reactions occurring in both reaction phases could indicate a combination of both IgM and IgG antibodies or a strong IgM antibody that carries through to AHG phase. The presence of multiple antibodies should be considered if reactions vary in strength or there are two separate reaction patterns in the IS and AHG phases.
Most are IgM and not clinically significant May interfere with detection of clinically significant antibodies if they react at AHG phase. Screen cells and panel cells will have positive reactions in IS phase and strength will diminish or antibody will not be detected at AHG phase. Auto control will be positive if the cold antibody is an autoantibody. Binding of antibody to antigen occurs at room or colder temperatures and may start to disassociate from the red cell membrane at warmer temperatures. Reactions will appear weaker or be negative at warmer temperatures. (Example: 4+ at IS phase and W (weak)+ at AHG phase.) PrewarmingIf a non specific cold antibody or cold agglutinin is suspected, warm the sample and testing reagents, including saline, to 37° C. Only do reaction readings at AHG; bypassing the optimum reaction temperature prevents activation and binding of the cold antibody .
|Which of the following conditions is most frequently associated with anti-I:||View Page|
|The most severe acute hemolytic transfusions reactions are the result of which of the following:||View Page|
|The RBCs found in this illustration are the result of:||View Page|
|Which of the following serological tests would be used for the diagnosis of Q-fever:||View Page|
|The arrangement of erythrocytes on this peripheral blood smear can be associated with each of the following conditions except:||View Page|